Eco Zone

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Ecological Reflections

River Reflections

Welcome to Aldo’s Eco Zone, named for pioneer ecologist Aldo Leopold (1887-1948), author of A Sand County Almanac, “Thinking Like a Mountain,” Game Management, et al. Starting with the most recent Seeds of Thought (published quarterly in La Voz del Refugio by Friends of Las Vegas National Wildlife Refuge), then working backwards, Eco Zone articles explore issues at the intersection of humans & the rest of nature, each published article followed by further thoughts offered here for the first time. Feel free to skim & skip along down to topics of special interest.

[Still earlier Seeds of Thought are available on the “Seeds Archive” page, with another few dozen from pre-website days, going back to the first issue of the newsletter in 2003. ]

~~~ Seeds of Resiliency [March 2017]

Spring is the season of RESILIENCE, life again from the frozen land, a term even defined, from its roots, as the capacity to spring back, the ability of organisms, organizations or systems to recover, persevere, and grow stronger after or in response to stress….

The ability to spring back (from winter or anything else) doesn’t happen just by accident—though most does come with the territory, inherited from countless re-investments that keep on giving. This is especially so for resilience of land, wildlife, organisms and communities, but also applies to organizations, economic systems and societies as a whole. With many feedback loops, scales, time-frames, & points of views at play, resilience is dynamic and multi-dimensional.

Changing with conditions, resilience can also be developed or depleted, invested in or consumed, encouraged or impeded. With no human effort or investment at all, it would still be spring—thanks to wild resilience, the natural productivity of the land. Yet we also invest in shelter, institutions, infrastructure, education, know-how of all sorts, skilled personnel able to respond to a wide variety of situations as needed, and various critical systems, like the 3 E’s: Ecological, Educational, Economic.

Critical systems aren’t ultimately separate from each other. A short-term economic gain for a few can turn quickly into a long-term loss for many when negative ecological, educational, health and/or reduced productivity costs are factored in. The relation of critical systems can be temporarily inverse, but they soon come back in synch, usually more quickly than expected. An honest accounting shows it pays to respect mother nature, the ultimate source of resiliency.

“Wild capital,” nature’s stored productivity, involves genetic and ecological legacies, along with their varieties, redundancies, know-hows, adaptive capacities, networks and relationships developed over multiple time scales and orders of magnitude. Built-in resilience factors continue to be compounded—and/or depleted—in dynamic systems. Longer-term communities practice balance-keeping in relation to resources, therefore, getting the most benefit over time harvesting a share of reproductive surplus, not consuming nature’s productive capital or depleting reserves.

Nature’s highly evolved checks and balances add levels of resilience, yet can also be destabilized by the effects of potentially runaway human technologies—requiring intelligent human management. What we call intelligence contributes to resiliency, then, the integrity of systems over time. In natural systems, such intelligence needn’t be conscious or intentional. When the threats to the wild capital base come from the rapidly compounding effects of human technologies, however, consciousness and intention are called for.

The escalating pace of human impact intensifies the scale and range of stresses, along with  interest in resiliency studies; so, to flesh the concept out in action, I’ve included links to a few noteworthy examples on the website (including a recent one by an FLVNWR member). Consider this just the sprouting seed of the effort to expand our understanding of resiliency—what conveys, builds, consumes or wastes it; its sources, functions, applications, and embodiments.

Come to think of it, the seed itself represents a perfect example of natural resilience, a stored productive capacity (or spring-back reserve) invested with stress resistance, potentially even invigorated by having passed through winter! On the other hand, the same can be said of our feathered friends. To see how this seed of thought develops, then, pop, hop, click or flicker on over to the Eco Zone page at www.bodlibrary.com, where the exploration continues. –Ooops. You’re already here! 

Three Follow-ups:

A Definitions

B: 3 Resiliency-based Studies In Action—

C: Contributing Factors & Attributes of ‘Wild Capital’  [Most of this is now beyond the immediate scope, so just the opening section is included here now. The more complete look at the nature of capital & factors affecting natural productivity may be added in clickable pdf eventually, sooner if asked for, &/or put on the Going Deeper page.]  
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A: Definitions of Resilience

Ways of evaluating or measuring resilience depend on context, but the essential definition remains mostly the same as used in ecology, psychology, medicine, and economics:

  the capacity of an organism, organization, or system
to process, spring back and/or recover from stress,
disturbance and/or disruption.
 

The concept of resilience is so widely used across fields these days, it deserves clarification. An honest look at our definition already reveals some possible confusion in the words stress, disturbance & disruption. In fact, there’s no fixed dividing line between a stress that “disturbs” (according to type, intensity & duration), interpreted as a negative, and an exercise that draws on reserve energy for positive outcomes, including development, tone, and fitness. The “undisturbed state” isn’t that of a un-kicked rock or couch potato, in other words.

If you’re an antelope, stress generated by the presence of predators likely contributes to your fitness, following the principle that what doesn’t catch you makes you stronger, or at least shows you’re among the faster, improving the chance of passing on those genes. The predator also keeps the species more fit generally and its populations more stable, modulating the boom-bust collapse potential of a strictly herbivore-vegetation relationship, providing a narrower range of relative prosperity for predator, prey and vegetation alike over a longer time frame.

Ideological arguments entirely aside, one must admit a kind of dynamic intelligence at work in the emergent balance, ultimately beneficial to each. Throw the relations out of kilter to the advantage of predator or prey, however, and sooner or later the chickens come home to roost; the human need to manage human effects increases if we’re to prove sufficiently resilient to meet the challenges we’ve set in motion.

Similarly, there’s no absolute line between change, seemingly inherent in the nature of time, and disturbance, by which we mean stress-related change of the negative variety, as evident in whatever comparative criteria we’re using to evaluate vigor, variety, productivity, re-productive vitality, or whatever other measures of system health apply. A resilient market can take small shocks, stressful information, even the disturbance of negative pricing “correction” in stride, without a crisis, panic or significant disruption.

Disruption involves recognizable degrees of disturbance in which significant processes are interrupted or cease to function at the former sustainable level, threatening key components of the system, the system itself, and connected systems. In the financial crisis of 2008, for example, various currency flows froze, with vast domino & spill-over effects throughout the economy. In the Kaibab deer die-off, human elimination of wolves sparked a deer boom that depleted the forest food source to the level of mutual collapse, leaving a lower-functioning system.

It’s not accidental that the concept applies to different kinds of systems—ecological & economic, for example, where quite comparable dynamics can be at play, despite the manifest differences. Although the term can be applied to the ability of a material to spring back to a former shape after a stress has deformed it, resilience is mostly a function of an organization or system, something with many parts & synergistic relationships—other organizations, entities & operating systems directly or indirectly affected.

Another way to describe a system’s spring-back capacity is in terms of its RESERVE CAPITAL. Capital is another term for productive CAPACITY. Resilience is essentially the system’s reserve capacity. More precisely, CAPITAL, stored productivity, conveys resilience. Capital can be Financial, Intellectual, Cultural, Social, Physical, or NATURAL & WILD, according to the system.

In nature, stored productivity takes many forms at different orders of magnitude, including genetic, cultural, & ecological. Wild capital includes all stored know-how, diversity, redundancy, adaptive capacity, & kinds of stress resistance (from protective membranes and shells to beneficial relationships of exchange, influence & cooperation).

Levels of resistance to (& ability to recover from) particular stresses, will vary with kinds, duration, intensity, degrees of disturbance or disruption, as with individual, organization, and order of magnitude. Even as resilience gives out for some individuals, in other words, ecological resilience as a whole may increase as parts of depleted sub-systems are recycled.

Resilience reflects the relative level of reserve capital, which provides a rough measure of the ability to spring back from a given range, type & intensity of stresses. That doesn’t necessarily mean returning to the exact same shape & composition as in pre-disturbed condition, however. Time doesn’t flow back even as cycles overlap. Nature is more like a river that follows its own dynamics, as well as the natural contours of the land. Disrupt its flow, and it goes on flowing in another direction (even vertically).

Banks & other financial institutions may be given “stress tests,” therefore, to check if their reserves seem sufficient to weather a defined range of situations & conditions. Most study of capital has focused almost entirely on financial & physical forms, e.g., bank credits & potentially productive equipment. It’s easy to see that a machine that can make something represents a store of productivity, so buying it represents something quite different from spending the same amount on operating expenses or for consumption.

The same can be said for intellectual property, with the rights to productive know-how. More recently, Francis Fukuyama & others have looked at the roles, sources & effects of SOCIAL CAPITAL, good will, know-how, organization & relationships underlying economic & political systems, including what creates, consumes &/or destroys it. In the world we know, many kinds of capital are involved, working together to produce value.    

We shouldn’t forget that NATURAL or WILD CAPITAL has always been–& remains–the foundation sustaining the system as a whole, the system-of-systems, arguably the ultimate source of value, including all life, food, air, water, health, wildlife, vegetation, & renewal. Being a function of systems, it doesn’t work by itself, in isolation, or in a vacuum, but in combination, in our case where culture, society, economics, individual know-how & wild productivity meet, playing an often invisible role in most of what even humans produce.

As discussed in more detail in follow-up C, below, wild capital has been built up by long-term compounding, in which a portion of the surplus has been reinvested in future productivity, over & over & over. All capital, of whatever kind, requires some reinvestment simply to maintain its productivity level, some variation in which also goes with the territory. Ideally, one harvests part of a surplus to consume, puts some back to maintain & upgrade, re-investing the rest in & for future productivity.

At the first level of sustainability, one may forego investment in increased productivity, while managing consumption & system maintenance. Below that, however, and productive capacity itself starts to be consumed, meaning a trajectory of less tomorrow–which is where the stored bounce-back of the system’s resilience becomes so important.

We seem to know much less about the breaking points in natural systems, including our own bodies, than about financial institutions. While some components of productivity can be quantified, other critical aspects emerge not from entities per se, but out of the relationship of elements in the system. Many mutually advantageous exchanges & relations, whether conscious & intentional or not, are of this order, as are the checks & balances that develop involving multiple parties over time.

The greater the human impact on the wild capital equations, the greater our need to understand the systems & manage the stresses we add–a matter deeply complicated by the different orders of magnitude involved, from the extremely local (back yard & back forty), where most of our work takes place, to the regional & global, generally less subject to our influence.  These different orders meet in resiliency-based management studies.

B: 3 Resiliency-based Studies In Action—

1. “…an assessment of the current resilience of the ecosystem…within the Great Barrier Reef Region.” provides an excellent example of a resilience-based ecosystem management study in action. Click on the following 2009 report, which demonstrates what might be called “coherent complexity,” “mosaic clarity,” or the many variously moving parts involved in ecosystem resilience. On the one hand, there are countless pixels of information; on the other, a single picture emerges, angle and distance dependent. Complexity informs coherence, and vice versa.

http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/3904/GBRMPA_OR_CH7.pdf

[2. I don’t particularly recommend Rethinking Ecosystem Resilience in the Face of Climate Change (Isabelle M. Côté & Emily S. Darling), except for a few wrinkles in its alternative view of resiliency in coral reef resistance. It raises the possibility that trying to return a local system to pre-disturbance levels of, say species distribution, might in some cases lower resistance to climate-change stresses by reducing relative levels of more generally stress-resistant types. Worth a note, along with its further claim that trying to protect or boost certain species may inadvertently inhibit the “functional redundancy” otherwise developing, thanks to the increasing levels of species more inherently adapted to the newer conditions. Well, maybe—in some cases.

The article makes a distinction between two aspects—or stage-specific faces—of resilience: resistance to stress; recovery from disturbance. It points out that in coral reefs, reserves (“No Take Zones”) definitely help recovery, reversing algification, for example, but have no effect on global conditions (temperature, acidification), so that some non-protected, locally stressed areas may have developed more generally stress-resistant populations.

Possibly a useful counter-balance to the idea of there having been some prior “purely pristine state,” an Eden before any disturbances—at least any related to humans. But there’s no putting the fruits of knowledge back on the tree, no way to un-know without un-doing ourselves in the process. As deep into the wilderness as one may get, there’s now no escape from more global conditions, which can have extremely disturbing local effects—e.g., fire, flood & wind-events.

While it’s also true that some far more humanly disturbed local environments may seem to have more resistance to climate-charged events, such a reasoning isn’t particularly relevant to most functional management situations, which always start with (and repeatedly come back to) existing conditions. What difference does it make if a paved parking lot with planters is more resistant to fire, flood & wind damage than a thickly forested patch in mid-wilderness?

You work with what you start with, developing a management plan accordingly. As in medicine or health more generally, resilience-based management responds to the actual conditions as beneficially as possible, focused mainly on the local, where influence is most tangible. Where functional influence is involved, whether in terms of an individual body or a refuge, there’s no fixed line between what builds resistance to stress and what helps recover from disturbance. “Prevention is the best cure.” Nothing beats maintaining the system’s health, in cost, quality or effectiveness, in other words. Once a serious disruption has occurred, other steps to aid recovery become necessary, responsive to that situation.

http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1000438]

the mannikin challenge

3. The study giving rise to Enduring a decade of drought: Patterns and drivers of vegetation change in a semi-arid grassland (by Gitanjali S. Bodner & Marcos D. Robles, The Nature Conservancy, Center for Science and Public Policy, in the Journal of Arid Environments, Nov. 2016) “evaluated patterns and drivers of vegetation change in a semi-arid grassland in southern Arizona across eleven years of extended drought and high temperatures, 2004-2014…. Findings suggest managers could improve chances for sustaining resilience by responding to rainfall in multiple seasons, monitoring for mortality events, and establishing contingency plans for various types of drought.”

Besides being partly by a FLVNWR member, Gita’s report brings us back from coral reef country to dry land, very dry. The article uses the term resilience sparingly, but (as with Aldo Leopold, who may not have used it at all), the concept remains key to its focus.

http://azconservation.org/dl/Bodner.Robles.2016.J.Arid.Environments.pdf

C. Follow-up CSOURCES, ASPECTS & ATTRIBUTES OF RESILIENCE

Ish’s flicker

What creates it? Where does it come from, where does it go? Can we change, consume, deplete &/or build it?  Its main contributing factors include:

 Inherent Reproductivity—generative genetic & ecologically productive capacities which give rise to

——-Redundancy—
imperfect duplication produces many eggs in more than one basket, with added values derived from  

————Variation—divergent varieties, which generate an expanded range of potentials
for situations to call forth or favor, thereby increasing

——————Adaptive Capacity, the ability to respond effectively to changes—

whether drawing on primal creativity, accumulated know-how, inherent or developed flexibility, our own intelligence or nature’s—each adds to resilience, according to the system being studied—organism, particular ecology, economy, life on a planetary scale.

These factors or faces of resilience all seem o be present to one degree or another from the beginning of life. The inherent reproductivity of living forms gives rise to multiplicity, which takes the twin forms of redundancy & variation, repetition & variety, together broadening the range of potential response to the variety of possible conditions—more or less all of which may exist at various times &/or places….

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Seeds of Thought (22): Kinship with Magic… 

scan

From the dawn of consciousness, people have found pleasure, knowledge, empathy & wonder eye to eye with wild creatures. Whether met in nature or through an artist’s rendering, some of these seem to come imbued with magic, a power to move, affect, change one’s state.

This is not the “magic” of popular entertainment, based on trickery, sleight of hand, and mis-direction. Nature has its share of illusions and tricksters, with countless forms of mimicry, fakery, camouflage and display in its repertoire, yet its magic is far more basic, going to the heart of original creativity. Each “trick” discovered reveals other wonders, often on multiple scales.

Cousins of the word “magic” include image (“likeness”) and imagination (“the ability to form mental images of what’s not otherwise present”), all derived from an ancient root for “to knead, press, make.” All living organisms, from microbes on, exhibit the propensity to make, starting with parts and generations of themselves. Early human artists worked magic in ochre, clay, wood, stone and bone, making likenesses of various kinds with considerable power to move.

The perceived world generates an image in the mind, a likeness, according to nature’s magic; the artist makes a new representation out of imagination and medium, informed by observation and current feeling, with its own power to move. Re-imagined by each observer, the image-in-the-mind—as in any rendering—represents a joining of observed and observer.

In the continual exchange of organism and environment, the world as personally experienced is no longer something just out there, whether considered psychologically or physiologically, in terms of images or molecules. Received images from nature or art, like different molecules, can have quite individual effects, even across distances of space, time and culture.

The capacity to move (and be moved) in particular ways can be deeply wired into species, as well as culturally influenced. At the refuge recently, observing an elk herd off in the distance, the countless hues of the richly stained autumn fields mingling with the gossip of the cranes and geese made for an evocative mix. No description or rendering can reproduce such original experience in nature, with all the senses engaged, beyond frames, boundaries, or fixed horizons.

Yet the creative capacity remains fresh, immediate, subject to individual focus, personal spirit and artistic vision, nevertheless, with a lively power to move all its own. I’ve seen a few actual owls up close, for example, always with a sense of wide-eyed admiration. Even their pellets seem magical. An artist’s representation, in whatever medium, may carry some of the effects associated with the original subject, along with the maker’s own feelings and attitudes.

The elegant, endearing owl pair in Ian Strachan’s “Barndance” (above) has a spirit and personality all its own, drawn from the wild magic of the original form in nature (possibly via the Melbourne zoo) and the artist’s playful imagination. Thanks to my old friemnd Ian’s Visual Memoir for the image that actually set these thoughts in motion—along with more about magic and other ways of relating to nature on the Eco-Zone page at www.bodlibrary.com. But for now

We’ve bagged our limit—
~~~~our basket overflows with
~~~~~~~~owl hoots & meadowlark songs

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Follow-up(s)… 

Or one moment a jay, another a “Starry Night,” the next a zap of inspiration…. We’re nourished with wonders of creative spirit in nature and art. Effects aren’t limited to the impact of animals and beauty of landscape.image-7

Images can also be ominous and menacing, represent real or imagined threats. They can stereotype & demonize, seduce & mislead.  They can reassure, calm or trigger a flock into flight.

image-8

They can be audible as well as visual, conceptual as well as perception-based, borrowed as well as original. Where sounds are involved, their powers to affect feelings and attitudes have long been recognized more or less world-wide, the Pythagoreans and composers of the Vedic hymns being two notable examples of those who consciously addressed vibrational impacts on the psyche.

The mantra is one embodiment, but so are lullabies, love-songs, incantations, martial airs & marches, hymns & anthems, nursery rhymes & most poetry made to be heard, if only in the reader’s mind. In some cases, observed effects can be associated with particular formal characteristics, certain moods with certain keys, for example, by which feelings can be  transmitted &/or manipulated.

The vibrational ability of sound, voice, language to transmit mood & feeling is not in the least limited to humans. In the human context, this direct transmission of affect can take place at any level of self-consciousness &/or intention, inadvertently as well as purposefully. The vibrational transmission of language also seems to give rise to the very stuff of thought, the rhythms, tones & moods of which may in turn transmit feeling.

Not being the result of higher-cortex conceptual information, “affective” effects can be at odds with content &/or intent (as well as subject to independent analysis for signs of stress & other emotional indicators). Usually, thought & feelings travel in synch, woven together. They are not alternatives to each other, but complimentary aspects of our most basic relationships with the world around us.

Eminent scientists can be as affected by the power of images in nature as children in the forest or birds in a flock. Mental activity may predominate in some situations, physical, emotional, aesthetic, social aspects in others. In relation to nature, human understanding may primarily expand the range of wonder and power of representation.

The depth & texture of personal experience seem to be more random variables, largely independent of intellectual interpretation or degree of conceptual abstraction. Strangely, the same might be said about the relationship of science & magic, whether the original magic of creative existence or human versions involving the ability to effect changes in  entities, outcomes & events. As illustrated by the well documented “placebo effect,” many actual mechanisms of influence are not well understood, yet nevertheless “real.”

Whether for sorcerer or scientist, one distinctive characteristic of magic has long been considered “action at a distance.” This is what helped draw Newton’s attention to gravity, & Einstein’s from there to a theory of relativity accounting for each observer’s frame of reference, along with the idea of mass-curved space-time. It’s rather straightforward, or linear, to account for the interactions of billiard balls, but quite another to account for influences when pool cues & collisions aren’t visible as instruments.

image-5Light plays tricks on action at a distance by transcending distance itself, whether measured in time or space. From the photon’s frame of reference, transmission takes no time, thus far & near entangled. Yet the passage of light becomes our yardstick when we try to map our place in the universe, measuring space & time  in light-years back to a conceptualized “original creation,” a background radiation of ultimate magic— out of nothing, not just something, but everything…!

Meanwhile, back at the ranch, creation continues, as original as ever.  Efforts to trace the magical aspects of creation must eventually contend with light, whether in its biotic transformations here on earth, the universe at large, or its range of artistic impact….

photo

Light certainly qualifies in the magic category, powering earth’s weather, bloom & at least upper-level life. It may be considered the ultimate magic seemingly known so far from physical evidence, something with the power to make, the very energy of creativity—unless one counts dark energy, black holes or big bang, each arguably more inferred than known.

The power of light to move may affect an organism’s processes on multiple levels, from the most basic to the most profound. Sometimes these two may be the same—the more basic we tune our attention, the more profound the sense of resonance & implications.

photo

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It’s said that the human brain is capable of perceiving single photons, for example, but only when it has adapted to the dark,  thanks to the build-up of a light-sensitive substance called rhodopsin–which light degrades.

Close molecular relatives of rhodopsin have been found in many other creatures, including depth-dwelling ocean microbes adapted to low photon levels, where every cup-full of water can nevertheless contain millions of individuals with an astounding variety of genetic potentials.

Each observer responds according to wiring & programing, sensitive to a range of wave lengths, temperatures, & chemical compositions. Each creature, as well as each artist, has its own range of interests, capacities, and kinds of relations with the rest of the neighborhood, world, and cosmos. In the case of van Gogh’s “Starry Night,” for example, his translation of received experience to canvas mixes his own intense feeling along with pigments & oils. The result is not just shared sensations, but some of the feelings.

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Works of art have few, if any, limits in how sensations & feelings are imagined, generated, or manipulated to give them their “power to move.” One may depend primarily on the original image in nature, carried via an impression in variations of light. Another may depend on more abstract elements in light’s play through wave-specific pigments, feelings of texture, or other non-representational aspects, including patterns in form.

photoAt one extreme, there’s Jackson Pollack at his most exuberant; at another, prints by Ansel Adams, either one more or less equally received from nature & generated by the dance with materials.

The liveliness of a painted jay, like the single creature in nature, can feel quite individual, a particular bird whose alert attention leaps from its eye to ours. In “Barn Dance,” the equally particular couple, however much based on models in the original world, can be considered as native to Ian’s mind as the “wheat-field crows” were to Vincent’s.

[I’d take Ian’s birds any day, including the owls he “sees everywhere.” For crows, I’d go to Tony Angell’s, or the elm trees surrounding our house.]

scan-3This jay came from a Concert for the Birds silent auction a few years ago. Alas, the cropping doesn’t do bird or painting justice. Hope to figure how to fix this–& who the artist is.

The bright semi-abstracts are from Virginia’s Gallery, reachable by menu at top of the page.  Will put up a few of Tony Angell’s corvids when I figure how to manage the scaling & cropping….
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Going Deeper: an overview

photoWe may make a convenient distinction between seemingly quite different ways of relating to nature, though also potentially misleading, since they are far from mutually exclusive: e.g.,

magical (superstitious, animistic);
aesthetic (perception-based, pleasure-based, making-based…);
religious (sacramental, conceptual &/or ideological);
productive (exploitative, functional, fundamentally practical);
scientific (based on objective observation, experiment, reasoning);

Some might prefer to lump various categories to simplify—e.g., religious, scientific, productive—or perhaps add recreational, something with aesthetic, psychological, emotional & physically functional aspects. In practice, the categories are no more separate than our complementary senses, used simultaneously in ever-varying degrees to draw a coherent sense of the world….

[click to continue:  ways-of-relating-to-nature ]

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Seeds of Thought (#21)–All of the above–& then some

IMG_1871The old advice “think globally, act locally” is incomplete without noting that neither thinking and acting, nor global and local, are necessarily separate from each other at all. Given the speed of modern communication, transport and transaction, such distinctions almost disappear—but this shrinkage is only the surface of a deeper story.

Terms like local, regional, and global represent concepts that are not just relative and subject to overlapping degrees, but reflect an underlying reality in which near and far are fundamentally entangled, mutually interpenetrating. Local expresses global, and vice versa. You don’t have one without the other. Where is there air, water or sun that is only local, for example? Or wildlife, the human mind and culture? Each exists within and beyond definable boundaries, part of larger systems emerging from exchange.

You might say local is wherever we are, yet life itself is always in transit, even the most well rooted moving through time. We may zig and zag, individually and in groups, yet shared planetary motions are always with us, shaping our days and seasons. Here itself is in motion. Conversely, even our own bodies have components from everywhere, as each cell, breath and swallow contains elements affected by wherever they’ve been, as by the molecules they’ve become part of.

In the relation of parts and whole, parts derive substance, sustenance and significant characteristics from the shared whole, and vice versa. No parts thrive long without a healthy whole in which to be and become, drawing nourishment and renewal. No whole thrives long without a sufficiency of healthy parts working together at all scales—itself also part of a greater whole. Social, cultural and physical health thus depend on ecological health, and vice versa, with infinitely looped connections.

Land health can be described in many ways—e.g., practically, in terms of firewood, food, education, and other values produced, not all quantifiable; objectively, using information on vegetation and wildlife, including changes in numbers, varieties, and other characteristics of resilience, the system’s apparent capacity to sustain, re-balance and renew itself; and subjectively, using aesthetic, psychological and spiritual terms like beauty, wonder and awe.

At the intersection of  natural and social fabrics, refuges help support healthy connections between near and far, as well as between human and wildlife communities. In this, they help shape, as well as reflect, deeper community values, working in a network of many related efforts at all levels of human organization—individual home and biome to thoughtful earth as a whole, with many overlaps in between, wherever our activities interact with natural systems.

Given the shared awareness at the core, it may seem self-evident which expressions have most importance: window-box gardens or wilderness protection; bird-friendly yards or wildlife-rich forests; productive farms and ranches or healthy rivers and wetlands; watershed alliances or conservation agencies; community services or public parks; school habitats or field-trips; local acts or national policies; cooperative planetary efforts addressing global issues over decades, or fleeting moments fluid on the wing when life speaks from the heart for itself.

this is my world, too—/ the red-winged blackbird declares/ again & again

[Found at a Concert for the Birds silent auction some years ago, the full-throated photo above is unsigned, but seems to be by Amanda Ruffin.]

Seeds of Thought (#20)–Dec. 2015 [came out March 2016]:

Trans-locality 1b 001flight 001 The Trans-local Mind
in Migration

Flocks passing south with the sun turn  thoughts to being in more than one place and time. As with loss of youth or cherished companions, part of the departed remains, while parts of the remaining feel elsewhere. In contrast to the entanglement described in physics, our connection may be psychological, yet the two realms aren’t as separate as some assume, and the state of either affects the other.

The idea of separateness often unravels under close scrutiny. Even the self, that most distinct of ephemeral creatures, exists only by virtue of being in constant exchange with many worlds—air, water, food, land, language, society, economy, and sun for openers. Our lives are woven from countless, often hidden, relationships at every scale, from biome and creatures on the wing to planetary currents and astronomical fields.

To be fair, a sense of separateness is functional in everyday life, and many practical advantages come from applying it. The fact that the brick wall is mostly empty space on the atomic level doesn’t change the fact that we don’t want to run into it at the scale of our normal experience, only when visiting Alice in Wonderland.

As the science most devoted to pure objectivity (i.e., separation of observer and world to the exclusion of psychological factors), physics was late to Alice’s party, but has ended up there anyway with relativity, uncertainty principle, entanglement, and nonlocality. Some experts learn more & more about less & less by cutting things into smaller & smaller parts until nothing’s left (though of that nothing, knowing little). When the physicist looks close, local disappears into field, while particles become waves.

The study of life has taken its own journey from entity to field, part to relationship. A half century before Einstein, Darwin could have called his great work a “theory of relativity.” From detailed study of complex variations, he began to realize how bio-dynamically entangled living forms were with each other and with ecosystems through time—with branching, non-linear feedback loops.

A developing embryo, recapitulating the evolution of its life-form, may remind us how embedded the past remains in the present going forward, yet the legacies of life- and land-forms, language, culture and society are all around (and within) us, whether carried in DNA or other kinds of memory. The fabric of our organic relationships—i.e., the web of life—involves and transcends particular locations in space-time.

Life is always in motion, singly and in flocks, bringing the far near and vice versa. Part goes wherever mind and heart range; parts of everywhere appear here—from atoms created long ago in distant stars to the life-giving rays of the winter sun eight minutes away; the sustaining molecules in our next breath to that miraculous flock gliding in on ancient wings; the feelings of those near to thoughts from across the globe and/or long ago.

Even the seed, one of the most localized things we know, encapsulated in a shell-defined space (as if outside of time and apart from change), becomes the very vehicle of trans-locality—whether traveling through space in a bird’s gut; across time, bringing its life-form to spring; or across forms, turning into the bird-in-migration!

[Thanks to the web, a Seed of Thought now also transcends its original place. For more on the trans-local relationships of place, time, seed, mind, migration and form, click over to the Eco Zone page at www.bodlibrary.com.  —Richard Bodner]

Since that’s where we are already, click files about to go up below shortly!

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Trans-world tree v 001

Follow-ups

(A)– Down the Fractal Hole of the Trans-local Mind: on connectivity; the trans-locality of action & information; the mind in the non-machine….Butterflies released CM3 (2)

Down the Fractal Hole to the Trans-local Mind-pdf

(B)– Degrees of non-separation: worm-holes, blind man’s hat, kneads & loops of matter & mind, creatures of the in-between… Degrees of non-separation

(C)–Seeds of Paradox: more on the wonders of seeds in transition, evolution, time, memory, form & change… The-Paradox-Seed-pdf

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From the September 2015 issue

Gita in sky #1

Seeds of Thought (#19): Thinking like a planet

All creatures, from single-cell organisms to birds and beyond, use languages distinctive to their kinds and groups. Human language may be considered our tool of tools, shaping world and brain, making culture and technology possible. We use it to connect with others, process information, make sense of the world, work together, talk ourselves through any task, discover and clarify what we’re thinking.

Verbal language can be progressively fine-tuned to narrow the distance between reality and representation, our best remedy when focus is blurred by mis-representation, whether deliberate or from ignorance. Since the gap between content and packaging makes it possible to call chemical off-gassing devices “air fresheners,” we modify how we interpret such information according to our sense of the transmitter’s motives and level of understanding.

Buckminster Fuller struggled to align his language and understanding. Training himself to observe, report, and relate to things as they were, he even replaced “sunrises” and “sunsets” with earth-turning equivalents. This was during a period when government institutions were doing the opposite, i.e., generating “credibility gaps.” Since language is a primary medium of connection, disconnecting it from what’s really going on can have dangerous consequences, not the least of which can be loss of trust in both language and its users.

If there’s an obligation in commerce to represent products accurately, it’s all the stronger in science, where honest reporting provides the basis by which understanding advances, continually tweaking representations to better reflect the reality described. The better we understand, the better we frame; the better we frame, the better we understand. Aligning language and reality to each other sharpens focus the way some cameras bring two images together for precise registration.

Applying this principle to the emergent ecological issues of our day, I’m struck by how little meaning “climate change” conveys on its own. When is climate not changing? “Global warming” at least has a little content– though with dangerously misleading associations, being so tepid and even welcome when thermometers plunge. “Warmth” hardly does the dynamic justice. Put one hand in boiling water and freeze the other in ice; the average temperature isn’t as alarming as the reality feels.

I suggest “climate charging” instead, for a more precise picture of what happens when accumulating “greenhouse gas” molecules trap ever more solar radiation. This heat-energy charge translates into melting icecaps, rising seas, increased intensity of storms and range of extreme weather events, along with unknown ecological disruptions and an unclear potential for thermal runaway–or even an extreme reversal into a new ice age. Our fossil-fuel emissions take us into the uncharted territory of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels unprecedented in the lifetime of our species.

Some effects may be welcome at times, as when rich summer rains charge a local ecosystem with green growth and birdsong, but the complexity of global feedback mechanisms requires us to gain control of otherwise runaway technologies while we can, a dangerously charged situation. Aldo Leopold once said the first rule of intelligent tinkering was “to save the pieces,” i.e., safe-guard critical systems from our own impact. Now that includes managing emissions at the planetary scale.

With so much at stake, saying just charge it, passing the charges on, isn’t a responsible option. In Aldo’s time, one might preserve or restore a forest, river or prairie patch by learning to think like a mountain, watershed, and land community. Now the challenge is learning to think like a planet.

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A. More on #19: Climate CHARGING–Changing Terms

The term “Global Warming” supposedly gave way to “Climate Change” in part because it was too hard to explain how “warming” could also lead to colder colds. “Warming,” by itself, is at best incomplete, however, and at worst seriously misleading. Unfortunately, “change” by itself is relatively meaningless—climate is always changing. The term communicates nothing about the nature of the change, its character, or its agencies.

Another term suggested more recently has been “Climate Disruption.” Google it and many articles come up, including one from March 2015 in Forbes on the history of (and reasons for) its use. Certainly it’s the disruptive effects that concern us. It also implies that humans are doing the disrupting, which a main basis for human response.

Ironically, one of the first terms used by scientists to describe the process and its potential implications was climate modification, also focused on the role humans played. Otherwise, modification is just a five-syllable substitute for change. Neither provides any information about the nature of the changes—except that modification implies by us.

For reasons offered in Thinking like a planet, above, I believe Climate Charging gives a clearer, sharper and more informative picture. Amazingly, a quick search of “climate charging” produced no relevant links whatsoever! A deeper search might produce at least some results, as the term does occasionally slip into discussions, though not yet as a common name for the phenomenon discussed.

Still, it goes right to the heart of what our activities are doing, rooted in fundamentals of the physical processes, the details of which are explained in various reliable websites, e.g., how electro-magnetic radiation from the sun gets turned into longer-wave heat-energy that greenhouse gas molecules absorb as extra vibration. Whether energy is conceptualized as heat or molecular motion, its charge transfers throughout the system.

A charged system helps explain a wide range of effects, including the appearance of seemingly contradictory extremes, like severe cold waves and record snows in years when “average temperatures” are hitting new highs. Events that seem to contradict ‘global warming’ become more understandable, part of a coherent picture that includes the intensity of storms, rising seas, and many effects as yet poorly understood. Many disruptions may be predicted, nevertheless.

Some effects may even be quite welcome from the human perspective—in some places at some times, or even on balance. It may be that the human presence makes the charging of planetary energies inevitable at a corresponding scale, but if so, this only reinforces our responsibility—i.e., the necessity—for us to regulate our outputs in the same way we do our other waste products. Until we know how to manage the planet’s thermostat responsibly, we better not be charging it to unprecedented levels in one direction without the ability to reverse course if & when we’ve gone too far….

B. More on #19: Language–our tool of tools

Part 1: Language–ultimate tool

[More on “climate charging,” “scale shifting,” & the relationship between language, awareness and reality may be added shortly.]

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Seeds of Thought #18June 2015, below, weaves a personal tribute from a few simple observations & a central idea with deep roots. There’s a follow-up on Basho’s last poems (“Ripples”), following, with another in progress (“Buddies from the Beginning,” more on Jan, the early years of FLVNWR, & the expanding universe as a neural network with its center everywhere). This picture of Jan “in her natural habitat” is from a few years ago, when the Albuquerque F&WS office sent its display trailer for the group to use at the county fair.

Jan NWR2 001           Seeds of Thought (#18):
A Net with Many Moving Centers

Asked if he had a last verse to leave behind at his journey’s end, Basho said that for some time he’d written each as his last. I’ve tried to follow that example in “Seeds,” addressing the ecological idea or issue then most pressing. News of Jan Arrott’s migration plans give rise to these thoughts now.

Not long back, I couldn’t have imagined a refuge friends group without her active presence as center of gravity, connecting wild and cultured worlds from her log nest at the refuge edge. Over the last dozen years, the group has become a resilient network, however, with members of different ages, skills and backgrounds drawn together by shared interests–including those that led to the establishment of the refuge fifty years ago. Both volunteer organization and refuge network have always been at heart community expressions.

The network idea seems very current in this era of social networking and world-wide-web, yet it was already central to ecological perspectives long before, as students of nature became aware of complex living communities with countless, often hidden threads knitting the web of life together. Not that ecologists were the first to adopt the metaphor.

When the scribe copying Basho’s Backcountry Trails in 1694 claimed its maker was “like that divine weaver whose every knot in the net of creation is a shining dew-drop jewel reflecting all,” he was alluding to what 3,000 year-old Sanskrit texts already called Indra’s web, a magical net in which each node contains an aspect of every other. Many cultures represent this connectedness interpenetrating all in similar ways—with hoops, loops, nets, weavings and webs.

Networking itself is far more ancient than any idea of it—seemingly a core organizing principle of all advanced multi-celled organisms, families and social groups, yet practiced even by single-cell organisms. In “quorum sensing,” for example, members of certain bioluminescent species only light up when gathered in a large enough group. Recent discoveries show networking in other single cell critters also, practiced in somewhat different ways between cells just split off from each other, more distant cousins, and members of other species.

I say “single-cell” above, but the distinction between individual and community can be a matter of the scale on which one looks, i.e., in the eye of the beholder. Organisms don’t live in a vacuum, but as part of communities with multiple relationships, languages and systems of exchange. As Aldo Leopold pointed out, what happens in one part of such an ecosystem affects all parts, according to connections often hidden in the rich complexity of the “land organism.”

Whether units of a network are cells within an organism, ants in a colony, birds in a flock, or humans with a common purpose, many of the same dynamics apply. The individual unit is never fully “bound” within itself, but functions as part of larger wholes also. Whether called the land, web of life, nature, living earth,  flock, or community, these larger entities affect all their members, while each member affects the whole.

It’s been said that the universe surrounds us like a great circle with no boundary, whose center is everywhere. That can be said about networks also—whether of refuges or of friends. One such center will travel wherever Jan moves, then, returning with her, too, making any special occasion that much more so. Meanwhile, the birds in Santa Fe are in for a treat.
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Follow-ups to #18:

Ripples”: on Basho’s last poems–click below.
Buds from the beginning“: on good will & the difference one person can make–ask;
“The universe as a neural network with centers everywhere“: a runaway?

Ripples: Ripples from Bashosee the  Hai! page for more in the Basho vein, with lots more on Basho own work elsewhere (e.g., www.bodlibrary.info).

Buds:  Recollections on early FLVNWR history, plus reflections on Aldo, the nature of good will, caring & how synergy develops in networked systems–on request.

The universe as a neural network with centers everywhere: In progress, but probably a runaway beyond the scope here, though maybe up eventually on the Going Deeper page (or sent as attachment on request.
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Seeds of Thought #17, below, came out March 2015. The pink heads rising out of the snow (in the photo by Gita) are from a barrel cactus. Seeds #16 & #15 are further down the scroll, each with follow-ups not previously published. [Seeds prior to #15 (fall 2014) can be found on Recent Seeds & Seeds Archive pages.]
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Pinkheads in snowSeeds of Thought (#17): Spring all over again…

Groundhog Day pops up roughly half-way between winter solstice and spring equinox, so calendars that regard solstices and equinoxes as seasonal mid-points locate the start of early spring and the new year near it, making it a time for beginning over with whatever added perspective prior experience may have provided. Like Bill Murray in the film “Groundhog Day,” we have a chance to pick up on repeated cues, hone intuitions, fine tune actions to outcomes….

In that sense, each day the sun rises can be groundhog day– yesterday all over, yet open to fresh vision. Seasons repeat this process at another order of magnitude without ever being quite the same year by year or day by day, let alone over a lifetime. Each season surprises, but spring most of all (at the moment), as the power of life reasserts itself out of recently frozen ground. For new vegetation stirring in hidden root and seed, deeply encoded memories take nothing away from the fresh experience, as softened soil fluffed by frost records countless fresh prints, goose feet, paws, beetle tracks and more. For myself, with more than seventy springs under my belt, I’m still surprised to be here at all, especially after a stretch of fierce winter storms and heart-chilling cold, thankful for wood-stored heat.

No matter how many re-generations seeds and shoots spring from, their only real knowledge may be how to sprout and grow, following directions coded over eons. Wisdom, if any, must come from what’s embedded by the larger whole over time, “remembered” in terms of how the self responds to what it finds, transforming molecules of air, water, and soil into its form(s). Seen in time-lapse photography, this transformation picks up speed when life stretches, breathes, feeds on and exchanges with the world that gives rise to and inhabits it. Though we try our best to anticipate what coming seasons have in store, our horizons, too, are limited.

A century ago, in an age of rapid encyclopedia expansion, some supposedly learned people believed humans knew, or were on the verge of knowing, just about everything important. The ageless Socrates, on the other hand, attributed his vaunted wisdom to an acute awareness of how little he actually knew. He taught the wisdom of inquiry, then, a way based on questioning, not presumption, as basic to the sciences as to philosophy. Like the child who follows each answer with another question, the student of nature finds new wonders to ponder with each discovery.

Never mind for now exotic things like quantum weirdness. There’s plenty to notice in what’s close at hand wherever life is–bursting its shells, rearing its oogly heads, responding to changing conditions, changing forms with the seasons and stages of development. A taste of the wild in the life of the planet revives wonder breath by breath, as even the most familiar paths cast up fresh observations, birds, flights of thought, and signs of the time (moment, day, season, life).

A cure for taking things too much for granted can be as simple as paying fresh attention; for a blind-spot, changing the angle of view; for incomplete understanding, another round of contemplation, step by step. For human folly (and the despairs thereof), at least there’s the tonic of spring– whose countless harbingers around here include robin, finch and meadowlark, mountain bluebird, beaver, bear and bud, whether critters in migration or year round residents.

Just don’t try to read the future in groundhog day shadows, as our local weather is rarely a question of either early spring or six more weeks of winter. Usually, it’s both, e.g., more than 70° yesterday (February 7), with snowstorms likely in months to come–with just enough déjà vu to shed light on the general direction.
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Ranger Beaver 001After-thought #A: For more on time & calendars, click here:
~~~ Time & Basho’s calendar (2 pp.).

Part of an chapter on the joys of translating the 17th Century traveling poet Matsuo Basho, “Time & Basho’s calendar” aims to put the reader back in synch with the seasonal and planetary cycles.

It suggests how the more arbitrary calendar more widely used today, disconnected from natural time cycles, makes renewal of fundamental relations with nature all the more important.

At least so I thought I heard Ranger Beaver expound, explaining why one should never rely on a single groundhog shadow for weather predictions, especially as mis-translated & mis-interpreted by the conventional media hype from Phil’s “handlers.” The film “Groundhog Day” (written by Danny Rubin, from Santa Fe at one time) is much more profound than the media event being covered. As Murray’s reporter-character develops awareness of self & others through repeated “re-awakenings,” each old-new day becomes an opportunity to fine-tune attention, actions, and relationships.

After-thought #B: The Ecology of Pondering (in progress)

GSB--Snow CactusEarly 2015 028Aldo Leopold was a great ponderer—easily intrigued, not so easily satisfied with superficial answers. His persistence in following things to deeper levels, more complete conclusions & more comprehensive understanding made him not just a great ecologist and teacher of wildlife science, but one of the great whole-system thinkers of all time.

I was thinking specifically of him—along with Estella & each of their 5 offspring—in “Spring all over again” when mentioning the wise child following each answer with more questions. I recalled a time about a century ago when Aldo was working on grazing issues out of the Forest Service’s district office in Albuquerque. Some ranchers with an unusually high incidence of cow miscarriages asked for help.

Leopold soon determined that the immediate problem was apparently caused by these cows eating too many green pine-tips–dropped to the ground by a population explosion of squirrels. Many experts would have gotten just this far (miscarriages to pine tips to squirrels), concluding that too many squirrels were the “cause,” so reducing the squirrel population was the solution—thus, traps,  poisons & shooting, for example.

Leopold, with his sense of more complete, eco-logical systems, realized that intelligent response meant first knowing why the squirrel population had gotten out of balance. With a little digging, he found that these same ranchers with the troubled cows had been shooting the hawks! The best solution—cheapest & most effective longer term, with fewest negative side effects—was as simple as stop shooting the hawks.

It was cultural, not technological, in other words. In fact, the technological proposals (traps, poisons, fire-power) were all bound to compound imbalances over the longer term, not cure them. Did you get that? The foundation of the system the ranchers were drawing on was organic & ecological, not technological. Technology may play a supportive role, but the health of the organic system is what counts most.

For an actual remedy or longer term cure, one needs to get not just to the first possible symptomatic intervention (e.g., squirrel numbers), but to the actual source of the imbalance itself, particularly where human actions are involved, as here, the ultimate cause that needs the changing, if for no other reason than self-interest.

Over some decades he came to realize a similar economics prevailed in the case of other predators for which some with shorter-term perspective maintained an active trigger itch. It turned out the value these brought to the health of the productive systems as a whole far, far out-weighed the small cost from domestic predation, yet the values of informed management were all-too-often “blindly sacrificed” by those who saw only the most superficial aspects of short-term economics, itself often out of balance in similar ways.

A funny thing about good will, meanwhile—wherever it seems to be directed, it tends to benefit all. In the example here, it can start out as good will for cows, ranchers, trees, squirrels, hawks, wildlife in general, or even oneself, yet end up of benefit to the whole system that nourishes them all, not one part of the system at the expense of the others.

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Here’s the column from the December 2014 issue, with two follow-ups.

Sept14 116

       Seeds of Thought (#16):  Interplay

In an on-line game design course from MIT, a class member recently indicated an interest in “helping people connect with nature.” A working group was formed to experiment with possibilities. Of the two sometimes overlapping kinds of nature-focused games–those designed to develop informed attention in natural settings and those representing ecological themes, but playable more or less anywhere—we’re mostly focused on the latter.

Asking myself what helps people connect with nature, I suddenly realized that’s exactly what Friends, refuge staff and, indeed, refuges themselves do every day. Never mind for the moment what it means for people to think themselves disconnected. What do refuges do to “renew connections never entirely lost,” as Aldo Leopold put it?

In his 1933 text, Game Management, Leopold pointed out that a refuge was “an integral part of a larger area,” for which it performed various functions, starting with supporting the vitality, variety and sustainability of its wildlife resources. He understood early on that the “larger area” included the human community. For a refuge to nourish wildlife sustainably, it must also nourish the larger community’s awareness of the values served.

Of course it’s the experience of nature itself that has the most immediate impact–land, sky, inspiring vistas, birds coming and going, mix of vegetation, wild energies in the air and ground, and endlessly surprising wildlife, all seemingly happening by itself. Look closer though, and it’s not always so obvious where human worlds end and natural worlds begin. Clouds, storms, mountains and migrations may look like pure nature, along with that eagle on its snag. But humans have been busy here, too, planting crops, designing paths and ponds, even perhaps placing that snag, all with visitor experience in mind, so humans and birds alike may feel invited, nourished, at home, with a stake in that place.

I’m moved every time by the care taken to make our refuge so welcoming, informative and enjoyable for everyone, reflected in the warm greeting, variety of exhibits, hands-on play areas, observation posts and surrounding trails. Throw in an occasional children’s chorus, jazz band, native flute, rehabilitated raptor, archery lesson, informative talk with slideshow, butterfly release–and boundaries disappear between art and nature, land and culture, learning and living. The shared good will that nourishes geese and cranes outside nourishes the person and community inside as well.

Like ecology, game-making tends to be both individually creative and collaborative, involving a variety of arts. Ideally, the resulting play tunes into, reflects and evokes feeling for key aspects of the worlds represented, whether played alone or in a group. I’m putting online some thoughts about more specific game possibilities and an invitation to collaborate, plus an overview of the territory and a “Thinking Like a Mountain” experiment you can try with 15 pebbles.

Eventually, we may add games from groups like the Leopold Education Project, though our focus remains on new designs that extend the play beyond natural settings. What might an “Enchanted Flyway,” “Refuge Network,” “Nature-Connect” or even “Game Management” game end up being like? To help design, or explore game topics further, check out our new website at www.bodlibrary.net.

For more thoughts on play in nature, the functions served, and the human-nature relationship, check out the follow-up discussions below. Otherwise, for renewing your sense of connection with nature, check out a universe or refuge near you! You’ll be thankful, too, for friends who appreciate both sides of our living community—human and wild– enough to serve their mutual well-being with such good will. [11/7/14]

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Follow up 1 (Interplay 2):  Nature Connecting Games

For our purposes, there are two kinds of Nature Connection games (with overlap). One kind uses game-play to enhance observation, exploration and discovery in nature. The other kind represents ecological themes, concepts and/or dynamics for play outside of the natural setting. Like photographs, poems, articles, paintings, and even place-inspired music, games can draw both content and inspiration from an original source, then extend the connection beyond the single setting….

[To follow the rest of this discussion, with an overview of nature-connecting games and thoughts on particular experiments and possibilities, click here.]

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Follow-up 2 (Interplay 3)–A Shared Journey

(the play between one & many)– Click Pdf. below to open.

Seeds 16-After-play B–A Shared Journey

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[The following ran in the September issue 2014, in time for the annual Concert for the Birds.]

            Seeds of Thought (#15):    What the birds have to say…

Goose Gab 2Bird languages may be more varied even than ours. Whether announcing a territory, finding a food source, issuing an invitation, keeping in touch with others, sounding an alarm, improvising arias for the joy of it or just reporting on the state of the world from that branch-tip, voices are as recognizable to their flock-mates as human voices are to us. Composed of individuals with sometimes conflicting interests (as may be expressed in expletives of screech and squabble), a flock can also function as a single-minded entity with many neurons, eyes, ears, mouths and throats, connected partly by threads of sound.

Attentive listeners, birds vocalize across an amazing range—from heart-stopping meadowlark and operatic hermit thrush to the sheer brain power and mind-boggling imitations of magpie, mynah and macaw; from soft owl hoot to piercing hawk, reverberating kookaburra to echo-skipping loon; from cheerful chickadee, liquid warbler and amiably clear-toned grosbeak to the geese’s gift-of-gab and the deep-throated conversations of cranes—to cite a small sample, each in turn changing with context and circumstances.

Bird language is not just oral, but also gestural and mimetic, conveyed by movement, as well as by sight and airflow-feel in flocks. Cues and inflections are directly expressive (as well as impressive) without distinctions between feeling, meaning, message, medium, or massage. Sight and sound circuits work seamlessly for us, too, even without actual sounds, as when “hearing” thoughts inwardly while reading. Both birds and humans share a wide variety of communications using whatever voices and sense(s) we have at hand.

With more distance folded up between intent and content, end and means, humans have more room for tactical deception, but birds have some ability to misdirect also, as when drawing attention away from a nest or sounding as if somewhere else to those without the right shift key. Bird in hand (A domestic macaw I knew could call and scold the dog, bark back, and punctuate its performance with choice commentary, more of an artistic rendition of its sound-world than a deception—except to the dog.) Birds aren’t above misleading, teasing and playing tricks, but these aren’t the norm, which usually involves vocalizing what’s felt and feeling just what’s said.

That doesn’t necessarily mean sweetness and light. Birds can let us know in no uncertain terms what they think of poor manners, some even as nestlings. In the wild, we adjust our distance and speed according to the range particular birds consider respectful for that situation, since the avian flight response is so easily triggered by sudden movements from large, animated forms like ours–perhaps part of how ‘flight’ got off the ground, taking to the air, in the first place. If they hadn’t had water and mud, frogs might have developed wings, too. The leap is so direct, sudden and compressed–not waiting around for translation.

Despite the human capacity to speak tactically (and consequent reputation for having forked tongues), our language use is more often honest and direct, connecting individuals in a web of shared vibrations. Like the birds, we use it to exchange information and perspective, find and serve a common purpose, make music, and have fun. Being such a noisy species, however, exposure to the natural soundscape becomes especially valuable to us, re-tuning our instruments to what land and earth have to say–not just the birds, but the whole “children’s chorus” of creation, though with special respect and admiration for the avian jazz all-stars!

Annual Fun 001 Our own arts benefit in the exchange, including decision-making and management, where listening to each voice informs the guidance for all. Musicians learn this principle in practice by playing together, at once listening and expressing, making and responding, giving and receiving. Friends find similar inspiration, reconnection and renewal enjoying land, birds, music and each other, gathering good will for each and all.

[For more thoughts on “Music, noise & meaning,” “Living in a flock,” & “What birds have to say,” check below.]
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Julio 14 069Afterthoughts–more on above:

Fight & flight: Though many little darters rely mostly on speed, alertness, and agility, favoring flight over fight for survival, birds as a whole are far from fight-less, whether with each other or with other species. Though rarely, even sociable parakeets can occasionally get into it with the ferocity of fighting cocks, quite loudly. Nestlings, if disturbed, sometimes go still & silent, but they can also hiss, cackle & rattle.

Larger birds can really do some damage, &/or hold their own, like crane with tiger in some martial arts. Nevertheless, with a few notable exceptions (at least one flightless), unprovoked bird attacks on humans are rare. Most birds are too bright to make trouble over nothing, the same for most people–particularly bird watchers, who tend to be good listeners.

Inter-species communication: A flock that recognizes who’s been feeding it, or a personable crow, may speak quite directly to us, eliciting an intended response. Corvids are just some of those who have shown they recognize individual humans. Parrots are notorious, of course, for learning to speak the languages of those nearby, including humans, although with varying degrees of comprehension. [There’ll be more on this topic in “Living in a flock,” when it gets up below.]

Language web: Birds and humans aren’t the only creatures with something to say to each other. Vocal communication seems to be a broadly shared aspect of being alive, from crickets & frogs to porpoises & whales, coyotes & elephants. Never mind for now languages we hear only with sensitive instruments, given off by bats or plants, or written in scent-trails. Our inability to hear or read in a range doesn’t mean nothing’s going on there. Nor does it mean we don’t pick up some information even so.

The same may be said for languages we don’t understand. In The American Rhythm, Santa Fe poet Mary Austin claimed she could often tell where recorded native songs in languages she didn’t recognize had come from, from how they reflected the  rhythms of their land & its prevailing conditions. It’s easier to pick up the emotional state of creature-generated sound perceived directly, what’s expressed & what’s received, than other kinds of information. Words aren’t required, and effects can be quite contrary to verbal content, as in the cradle-crashing lyrics of the comforting lullaby, “Rock-a-bye Baby.”

Despite widespread misconceptions to the contrary, neither languages nor communication in general require intent. Language is ultimately  another term for medium or vehicle of (information) exchange. On a lower scale, we hardly know much about the languages by which our own cells & organic systems communicate with each other, let alone how they converse with the rest of the world.

It’s now known that bacterial communicate with each other & with their environment as a whole, with a sense of things like population density, adjusting their own activities accordingly. Not just in a petri dish either, as “their people talk with our peopleon levels mostly beyond our awareness. It doesn’t just take a village to keep us going, in other words, but a diverse & mixed ecology of sub-organisms.

To be alive requires exchange with surroundings, as well as with others, on countless levels, many unconscious, others subliminal. To be aware, on the other hand, requires  a fine tuning where receiver & received meet.

Speaking of meeting, the 2014 Concert for the Birds is scheduled for Sept. 28, noon to 4, outdoors at the Las Vegas National Wildlife Refuge Visitor’s Center, featuring a children’s chorus, a jazz quartet & the usual suspects. One can easily see how las vegas got its name, not just where the mountain meet the plains (& sometimes vice versa), but where the human & wild converse. 1st Concert for the Birds 001More Annual Fun 001

Here are a few more snapshots from earlier concerts, starting with one of George ‘Deer Tracks’ Tyler playing two nose-flutes at once at the very first of these now annual gatherings.

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3 Responses to Eco Zone

  1. Richard and Virginia,

    Enjoyed both sites very much and am sending you an e-mail response. This is a great way to continue to dialogue about the things you believe in and support. Very nice!

    Craig

  2. Ricardo says:

    old teacher, yes, yet
    fresh inspiration always–

    thanks (to you both) for the examples of
    luminous sharing!

  3. Barbara B. Baker says:

    Dear Richard, Such an interesting article. Thank you for sharing it with your old teacher. My very best to you and your wonderful family.
    Susan is amazing too. Barbara

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